Nederlandse Modelbouw en Luchtvaartsite

Dutch Modelling and Aviation

In Memoriam

Klaas Willem Jonker
† April 30, 2018

On Monday 30 April 2018, Wilko Jonker died after a long illness at the age of 58. He leaves behind a wife and two children. The Dutch military aviation and plastic modeling were his hobby and on this website he shared all the knowledge he has collected over the years. His hobby has been able to distract him from the persistent disease in his body until the last week of his life. The contacts with other hobbyists were a major support for him.

This website will be maintained by different people for as long as possible, so that other enthusiasts can continue to benefit from extensive content.

North American NA-27


In 1935 General Aviation-factory, the predecessor of the North American factories, released two designs. One of them was GA-16, a two seat aircraft, with fixed landing gear, fuselage covered with linen and a Wright Whirlwind R-975 engine rated 400 hp.
This aircraft fitted the specifications of the USAAC for a new training aircraft.
Because the factory had changed it name in North American Aviation, the aircraft was designated NA-16.
The USAAC ordered 42 Na-16s under the USAAC designation BT-9 (Basic Trainer). The factory designation for prototype of this order of the BT-9 was NA-18, the production aircraft received model number NA-19. [ a short explanation, North American used a kind of charge number for each batch ordered. This differed from the model number. As you can see below, for the NA16 models many charge numbers exits. Because these charge number look very much the same as the model number, there is often much confusion]
Soon a second series of forty examples, was ordered under the USAAC designation BT-9A, these aircraft could be equipped with cameras and guns.
In 1937 a third order followed of 117 BT-9B’s, model NA-23, which had some minor modifications. Soon a fourth orders followed for 76 BT-9C, model NA-29, this was an improved BT-9A.
The US Navy became interested in the NA-16 and ordered forty aircraft of the same type as the BT-9B. These aircraft received the USN designation NJ-1. These aircraft were equipped with a Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41 Wasp rated 600 hp, instead of the Wright engine of the USAAC aircraft. The Pratt & Whitney engine was commonly used by the US Navy.

Based upon the experience with the NJ-1, the BT-9D was also equipped with a Pratt & Whitney R-985-2 Wasp Junior rated 450 hp. The fuselage was enlarged with about 36 centimetre and overall aluminium. Also the vertical tail unit was revised and the rudder more straightened in it s form. The cowling was enlarged and the exhaust was moved, also the rounded wing tips were revised and became more straight an flat.The wingspan was shortened to 12,50 meter.
After the new aircraft was presented to the USAAC, an order for 251 examples was done under the USAAC designation BT-14.
France ordered 230 modified BT-9B’s (NA-57), which were equipped with a Wright R975-E3 rated 420 hp. 214 of this order were delivered. A second series of 230 BT-14’s, charge number NA-64 was ordered. 111 aircraft of this order were delivered. The remaining aircraft of the French order, both BT-9’s and BT-14’s were handed over to Canada, which designated both types as Yale Mk I.

The BC-1 was developed from the BT-9. It was equipped with a retractable landing gear and .30 inch machine guns. Its purpose was weapon trainer.
It differed from the BT-9 in the extensions of the wing root with about one foot; revised wing panels and a revised canopy. The armament of one fixed, forward firing .30 machine gun starboard of the cowling plus one movable gun in the rear part of the cockpit.
The engine was a Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp rated 550 hp. 180 examples were ordered by the USAAC.
The US Navy used several examples of this type under the designation SNJ-1 (NA-26). The RAF used a number of this model under the designation Harvard I.

North American NA-16-variants.

Almost 2400 examples were built int the USA plus over 4000 examples under license.

As mentioned above the designations used by North American are very confusing, for each production batch a new designation (or batch number) was used. below an overview of NA-16 variants

The bold and underscored descriptions are the designator, between hooks the so called charge no. {the producitonnumbers of North American]

  • NA-16-1A(NA-32) one aircraft built on behalf of Australia; Built in 1938; fixed landing gear; Pratt & Whitney R-1340 rated 550 hp.
  • NA-16-1E (NA-49) RAF production of 400 examples as Harvard I. identical to BC-1. Second order of 30 examples received charge no. NA-61.
  • NA-16-1GV (NA-45); Delivery of three BC-1-variants for Venezuela in 1938.
  • NA-16-2A (NA-42) Delivery of two BT-9’s in 1938 to Honduras.
  • NA-16-2H (NA-20) Delivery of one civil BT-9 (was NC16025) for Honduras.
  • NA-16-2H (NA-27) A BC-1, fixed landing gear; delivered to the Netherlands in 1937. Civil aircraft, US registration R17377.
  • NA-16-2K (NA-33) One BC-1, fixed landing gear for Australia, 1938. This aircraft was used to develop the Wirraway.
  • NA-16-3 (NA-71) Three armed examples for Venezuela, 1940.
  • NA-16-3C (NA-48) 15 BC-1’s for China in 1938.
  • NA-16-4 (NA-41) Delivery of 35 BT-9C’s to China in 1938.
  • NA-16-4 (NA-46) Delivery of BT-9C’s to Brazil in 1939.
  • NA-16-4 (NA-56) 50 BC-1 with fixed landing gear for China in 1940.
  • NA-16-4M (NA-31, NA-38) Tow BT-9B in 1937 for Sweden.
  • NA-16-4P (NA-34) 30 BT-9’s delivered to Argentina in 1937.
  • NA-16-4R (NA-37) One BT-9 for Japan in 1937.
  • NA-16-4RW (NA-47) one BT-9 for Japan in 1938


Technical information NA-16-2H
Length: 8,41 m Wingspan: - m
Height: - m Wing area: - m2
Empty weight: 1399 kg Max. start weight: - kg
Max. speed: 274 km/hr Climbing speed: - m/min
Cruising speed: - km/hr    
Range:  - km Service ceiling: - m
Engine type: One Wright Whirlwind R-975-53 rated 400 hp
Crew: One instructor plus one pupil
Armament: None