Nederlandse Modelbouw en Luchtvaartsite

Dutch Modelling and Aviation

In Memoriam

Klaas Willem Jonker
† April 30, 2018

On Monday 30 April 2018, Wilko Jonker died after a long illness at the age of 58. He leaves behind a wife and two children. The Dutch military aviation and plastic modeling were his hobby and on this website he shared all the knowledge he has collected over the years. His hobby has been able to distract him from the persistent disease in his body until the last week of his life. The contacts with other hobbyists were a major support for him.

This website will be maintained by different people for as long as possible, so that other enthusiasts can continue to benefit from extensive content.

Brewster B.339 Buffalo


In 1935, the US Navy released a new requirement for a carrier-based fighrter to replace the Grumman F-3F, a biplane.
The new aircraft manufacturer Brewster came with the XF-2A-1 a metal monoplane and Grumman came with the XF4-1, a biplane. The Seversky XFN-1, a naval version of the P-35 was dropped because the performance did not meet the requirements. Grumman also failed, but the XF4-1 was further developed by Grumman into the Grumman Wildcat.
The XF-2A was to some extent a further development of the first Brewster, the Brewster SBN, which was later developed into the SB2A-Buccaneer (or Bermuda as the RAF marked this aircraft.)
The somewhat older, but very reliable Wright Cyclone R-1820 was chosen as power source for the aircraft; Grumman had opted for the more modern Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp.
The Cyclone was fitted with a single-stage compressor, thus perfomrnace at 15000 feet was less than at ground level. The Twin Wasp was equipped with a two-stage compressor, and provided, at the same cylinder capacity better performance.
During the flight tests of the prototype, operformed in 1938, the Buffalo turned out to outperform the XF4-1. Also, the US Navy thought the Twin Wasp too complicated in comparison with the Wright Cyclone.
The XF2A-1 was modern for its time with an all-metal body and linen-covered control surfaces. Further, it had a hydraulically retractable landing gear, flaps and shared a streamlined canopy. The fuel capacity was relatively small, just 606 l, the Wright Cyclone R-1820-22 of 950 horsepower at start was equipped with a single-stage compressor, causing its power to decrease at higher altitudes. The climb rate of over 2500 ft/min was quite good and the maximum  speed was reasonable with 447 km/hr at an altitude of 4879 m.
By improvement of the airintake an de the aerodynimcs os the engien cowling the top speed was increased to 489 km/hr.
The armament consisted of a fixed .50 inch machine gun plus  one fixed .30 inch machine gun in the nose.

The first test flights of the prototype started in January 1938.
Brewster finally got the contract for 54 aircraft under the designation F2A-1 and the first delivery took place in May 1939. However, the delivery rate was very low, mainly due to the building, a former car factory. The factory was actually unsuitable for mass production of aircraft, not least because of the location, away from an airfield.
The first production aircraft was equipped with a Wright Cyclone R-1820-34 rated 940 hp at teke-off, a larger tail fin and the armament was expanded with two .50 inch machine guns in the wings. Also all kinds of additional equipment increased the overall weight, so the climb rate decreased to 2600 ft/min.
Due to problems in production just eleven examples were delivered, the rest being delivered to the Finnish Air Force under the designation Model 239.
The US Navy issued a follow-up order of 43 examples of an improved version, called F2A-2. This version had a more powerful Wright R-1820-40 engine rated 1200 hp, an improved propeller, but still lacked armor for the pilot and self-sealing fuel tanks.
The weight increased to 2700 kg, but despite the speed increased to a maximum of 520 km/hr at 5000 m, however the climb rate was further reduced to 2500 ft/min.
The US Navy bought 100 examples of another improved version, designated F2A-3Of the F2A-3, ordered in January 1941, though the US Navy had become more and more unsatisfied with the Brewster F2A and its manufacturer.
The F2A-3 had self-sealing tanks in the wings, an elongated body, whereby the weight is further increased and also armor for the pilot was added. This reduced performance still further and the maneuverability was more and more decreased.
One of the problems of the BRewster F2A had to do with the main landing gear. The support had a tendency to bend and thereby scrape against the edge of the wheel space, so that the landing gear could not be fully retracted. In practice, this was solved by removing some of the support. However, a hard landing could break them.
In this version, this problem became even more frequently, so the type was soon referred back to the second line or used as a trainer.


Brewster XF2A-1:
the prototype
Brewster F2A-1:
first production version for the US Navy equipped with a Wright R-1820-34 Cycloneand two .50 inch machine gus in the wing. 11 examples built.
Brewster F2A-2:
43 examples for the US Navy adn US Marines equipped with a Wright R-1820-40 Cyclone and four machine guns in the wings.
Brewster F2A-3:
108 examples of an improved F2A-2 for the US Navy with a enlarged range and provisions for a bomb load under the wings.
Brewster XF2A-4:
test version of the F2A-3.
Brewster B-239:
Export version of the F2A-1 for Finland with a Wright R-1820-G5 and four machine guns.
Brewster B-339B:
Export-version for Belgium, 40 examples built.; two delivered, the rest was delivered to the British FAA.
Brewster B-339C:
24 examples of an export version for Netherlands East Indies with a Wright GR-1820-G-105 Cyclone.
Brewster B-339D:
48 examples of an export version for Netherlands East Indies with a 1200 hp (894.8 kW) Wright R-1820-G-205A Cyclone.
Brewster B-339E:
170 examples of an export version of the F2A-2 as Buffalo Mk. I for the Royal Air Force with a Wright GR-1820-G-105 Cyclone.
Brewster B-339-23:
Also referred to as B-439; export version of the F2A-3 for the Netherlands East Idies with 1000 hp Wright GR-1820-G205A engine; 20 examples built, but all were delivered to RAAF and some to USAAF


Technical information Brewster B-339C/D
Length: 7,92 m Wingspan: 10,67 m
Height: 3,66 m Wing area: 19,42 m2
Empty weight: 2076 kg Max. start weight: 3125 kg
Max. speed: 494 km/hr Rate of climb:  4700 ft/min (ca 1500 m/min)
Range: 1553 km Service ceiling:  abt 10000 m
Engine type:

One Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G105A rated 1100 hp (B-339C)

One Wright Cyclone G-205A rated 1200 hp (B-339D)

Crew: One
Armament: Two 12.7 mm machine guns plus two 7.7 mm machine guns


Technical information Brewster B-339-23
Length: 8,03 m Wingspan: 10,7 m
Height: 3,68 m Wing area: 19,42 m2
Empty weight: 2146 kg Max. start weight: 3247 kg
Max. speed: 424 km/hr Rate of climb:  3100 ft/min (ca 945 m/min)
Range: 1553 km Service ceiling:  abt 10000 m
Engine type:

One Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G5B rated 1000 hp

Crew: One
Armament: Four 12.7 mm machine guns


The Dutch East Indies Brewster B-339C, a land version of the Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo, was fitted with a Wright Cyclone G-105A engine rated 1100 hp. Of this engine still 31 examples were available from stocks, originally destined for the Dutch Dornier Do-24K . Twentyfour aircraft, designated B-339C were equipped with these engines.

Furthermore 54 (second hand) Wright Cyclone G-205A engines rated 1200 hp were obtained. These ex TWA engines were overhauled by the Wright factory. These engines were used for the remainder of the Brewster B-339s, which were designated as B-339D.


In February 1941 an additional series of twenty examples, referred to as B 339-23, was ordered. These were largely equivalent tothe F2A-3 version of the US Navy and were slightly longer and slightly heavier. For this order twentytwo Ex KLM Wright Cyclone R-1820-G2 engines were purchased. These were overhauled by the factory and put tp  standard G5B and produced 1000 hp each.

Because the performance was considerably less, these series was initially intended for the training of fighter pilots.

Because of difficulties in the supply of components, these series was not delivered to the NEtherlands East Indies and taken over by the RAAF and USAAF.

These machines would receive registrations between B3-167 and B3-186.


Cockpit van een Brewster Buffalo, éénmotorig jachtvliegtuig van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger (ML-KNIL).
Cockpit of a Dutch Brewster Buffalo.
[Enclosed photo from BeeldBank NIMH. Click on photo for ordering information]
Drie officieren staan op een vliegveld rondom een Brewster Buffalo van het ML-KNIL terwijl de piloot via de linkervleugel in de cockpit van het vliegtuig klimt.
Three offiocers standing near a NEIAF Brewster Buffalo while the fighter pilot climbs into the aircraft.
[Enclosed photo from BeeldBank NIMH. Click on photo for ordering information]
Brewster Buffalo jachtvliegtuig (ML-KNIL), registratie B-3119, op een vliegveld. Voor het vliegtuig staat vermoedelijk een brandblusser.
Brewster Buffalo fighter of NEIAF, serial  B-3119.
[Enclosed photo from BeeldBank NIMH. Click on photo for ordering information]
Linksachteraanzicht van een Brewster Buffalo éénmotorig jachtvliegtuig van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger (ML-KNIL) op het gras. Constructienummer NX3180 op het vertikale staartvlak, registratie B-396. Onder de linkervleugel hangt naar alle waarschijnlijkheid een oefenbom van 50 kg.
Brewster Buffalo of NEIAF at the Brewster Factory. Cicvil serial NX3180 on the tail.
[Ingesloten foto van BeeldBank NIMH. Klik op de foto voor bestel-informatie]
Brewster Buffalo jachtvliegtuig van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger (ML-KNIL) in stijgvlucht,  B-3119.
BGrewster Buffalo B-3119 of NEIAF. [atp Beeldbank NIMH]
Een Brewster B-339-23 op een vliegveld in de Verenigde Staten, klaar voor verscheping naar Australië.
Brewster B-339-23, B3-186 at an US airfield, awaiting delivery.
[Enclosed photo from BeeldBank NIMH. Click on photo for ordering information]


Construction nr.
Construction nr.
Date in service
Date in service
Date out of service
Date out of service
B-395 259 06-1941 09-03-1942 Captured by Japanese after the capitulation
B-396 260 06-1941 17-01-1942 Crashed on a mountain due to bad weather
B-397 261 06-1941    
B-398 262 06-1941 09-02-1942 Emergency landing after dog fight
B-399 263 06-1941 07-01-1942 Heavily damaged in landing at Kalang and written off.
B-3100 264 06-1941 12-01-1942 Shot down near Singapore
B-3101 265 06-1941 07-03-1942 Last mission flown om March 7, 1942. Captured?
B-3102 266 06-1941    
B-3103 267 06-1941 15-01-1942 Shot down near Singapore
B-3104 268 06-1941 21-02-1942  
B-3105 269 06-1941 15-01-1942 Landed into sea due to engine failure.


B-3107 271 06-1941 23-02-1942 Written of Andir
B-3108 272 06-1941  06-01-1942 Crashed whiling taking off from Palembang I
B-3109 273 06-1941     
B-3110 274 06-1941  07-03-1942 Emergency landing af dogfight witrh Mitsubishi A6M
B-3111 275 06-1941     
B-3112 276 06-1941     
B-3113 311 07-1942    
B-3114 312 07-1942 09-03-1942 Captured by Japanese after the capitulation; The aircraft was already cannibalized.
B-3115 313 07-1942 23-01-1942 Reported missing after attack of Japanese fleet
B-3116 314 07-1942    
B-3117 315 07-1942 07-03-1942 Shot down above Andir, killing Kapt. van Helsdingen.
B-3118 316 07-1942    
Brewster B-339D
B-3119 317     Damaged during test flight at factory. Ater the capitulation of Nei deliverd to RAAF as 3119.  (source: )
B-3120 318   09-03-1942 Captured by japan
B-3121 319      
B-3122 320   21-02-1942 Written off at Tjiater Pass
B-3123 321      
B-3124 322      
B-3125 323      
B-3126 324   28-01-1942 Lost after attack on airfield Samarinda II
B-3127 325      
B-3128 326      
B-3129 327      
B-3130 328      
B-3131 329      
B-3132 330   24-01-1942 Shot down above Semplak
B-3133 331   19-02-1942 Written off Paroeng
B-3134 332      
B-3135 333      
B-3136 334      
B-3137 335      
B-3138 336      
B-3139 337      
B-3140 338      
B-3141 339      
B-3142 340   02-03-1942 Written off Andir
B-3143 341   19-02-1942 Written off Andir
B-3144 342      
B-3145 343      
B-3146 344      
B-3147 345   19-02-1942 Written off Andir
B-3148 346      
B-3149 347      
B-3150 348      
B-3151 349   23-10-1941 Crashed
B-3152 350      
B-3153 351   09-03-1942 Destroyed by Technical crew
B-3154 352      
B-3155 353      
B-3156 354   09-03-1942 Destroyed by Technical crew
B-3157 355      
B-3158 357      
B-3159  358   24-01-1942 B-3159 was shot down on 24 jan. 1942.

Pilot: Theodorus Joseph de Waardt; born December 1, 1916; died in action January 24, 1942.
Reserve First Flight Lieutenant of RNEIAF. NEIAF unit: 1-VLG-5;
Distinction: Flying Cross on Kon. Warrant No. 1 on May 1, 1942 (posthumous)

B-3160 359   09-03-1942 Destroyed by Technical crew
B-3161 360   09-03-1942 Destroyed by Technical crew
B-3162 361     Not delivered; Possibly to RAAF
B-3163 362     Not delivered; Possibly to RAAF
B-3164 363     Not delivered; Possibly to RAAF
B-3165 364     Not delivered; Possibly to RAAF
B-3166 365     Not delivered; Possibly to RAAF


1/72nd Scale


  • Airfix
    • Kit 02050: An older model, but it is quite accurate. It is equipped with the underside window under the cockpit area.
      • Building report of this kit on Youtube

  • Revell and Aoshima
    • These models are of rather pore quality and hardly available at the moment.
  • Matchbox
    • Kit PK-24:This model had decals for a example of the pre war NEIAF. This was a rather good model, but it didn't have the lower window.
  • Hasegawa
    • Kit 24AP45: Buffalo F2A-2. A rather new model is the Buffalo of Hasegawa. I haven't had the opportunity to buy this one yet, but it is one of the best Buffalo models in 1/72nd scale.
    • Kit 24AP148: Brewster F2A-1 Buffalo.
    • Kit 2400915: Brewster B239 Buffalo "Finnish AF".
    • Kit 2400968 / 2401974: Brewster F2A-1/2 Buffalo "US Navy Combo" (2 kits included).
  • HobbyBoss
    • Kit 80290: F2A-1 Buffalo (US Navy).
  • Special Hobby: It is said that these are the best Buffalo models thus far.
    • Kit SH72126:Brewster F2A-3 Buffalo "Defender of Midway".
    • Kit SH72133: Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo "Yellow Wings".
    • Kit SH72218: Brewster Mod. 339D Buffalo Mk.I "Dutch and Japanese Service".
    • Kit SH72131: Brewster Model 339B/E Buffalo MK1 (also usable for KNIL version).
Brewster Buffalo B339D RNEIAF 2 VLG5 Semplak 1942. AKleijn
A model of a Brewster B339D, built by Adri Kleijn (Note: the brown colour of the camouflage has to be 'jong blad').


Modelling add-on

  • Pavla
    • Set C72048: Brewster Buffalo MK1 interior set and decals
    • Set C7243: F2A-2 Buffalo Interior set & Canopy
    • Set U72-59: Brewster F2A Buffalo wing set, Control Surfaces and Armament:
  • Eduard
    • Set E72-221: Detailset Brewster F2A Buffalo
    • Set E72-233: Detailset Brewster Buffalo Mod339 (Hasegawa)
  • Marti Kuivalainen
    • Set KPE72020: Detailset Finnish Brewster 239 interior (Hasegawa) (DOUBLE sheet
  • Falcon
    • Set VAX11: Canopies US Navy WW2 (PBY5 Catalina, F4U-1, Ventura, SB2C, F2A) .
  • QuickBoost
    • Set 72032: Brewster B339 Buffalo engine (Hasegawa)
  • Squadron Signal
    • Set 09132: Canopies Brewster Buffalo.


  • Tally Ho
    • Set 7137: Set for several NEIAF aircraft such aas Brewster F2A; B-25 Mitchell and Curtiss P40N
  • Dutch Decal
    • Set 72011: Set for several types of aircrat such as Brewster Buffalo B-3114 wiht Rhinoceros marking.
    • Set 72030: Set for several types of aircrat such as Brewster Buffalo B-3132
  • Dutch Profile
    • Set DDS87248: Brewster B339 Buffalo (RNEIAF) (both 1/72nd and 1/48th scale).
  • FlevoDecal
    • Set FD72-012: Set for five Brewsters, Curtiss Hawk 75, Curtiss CW-21 en CW-22; Messerschidt Me-18, Ryan STM, Lockheed 12 en Lodestar, Bücker Bu-131 and Martin WH-1 and WH-2

1/48th Scale


  • Classic Airframe
    • Kit 4100: Brewster F2A-1 Buffalo
    • Kit 4101: Brewster Type 239 Buffalo (Finnish Type)
  • Special Hobby
    • Kit SH48057: B339-23 Buffalo "In RAAF and USAAF Colours"
    • Kit SH48098: Brewster F2A-3 Buffalo "US Navy Trainer"
  • Tamiya
    • Kit 61094: Brewster B339 Buffalo "Pacific Theatre" (RAF, US Navy Netherlands East Indies AF)
    • Kit 61019-1000: Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo

Modelling add-on

  • Aires
    • Set 4166: Wright R1820 Cyclone (B17, F2A. P36).
  • Airwaves
    • Set C4850: Detailset Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo.
  • Brengun Model Accesoires
    • Set RL48026: F2A Buffalo Flaps and controls (Special Hobby, Classic Airframe.
  • CMK
    • Set 4167: Buffalo F2A-1/2/3 Armament Set (Special Hobby/Classic Airframe).
    • Set 4168: F2A-1/2 Buffalo Control surfaces set (Special Hobby/Classic Airframe).
    • Set 4169: F2A-1/2/3 Buffalo Undercarriage set (Special Hobby/Classic Airframe).
    • Set 4170: Buffalo F2A-1/2/3 Interior Set (Special Hobby/Classic Airframe).
    • Set 4171: F2A-1/2/3 Buffalo R1830 Engine set complete with cowling (Special Hobby/Classic Airframe).
  • Eduard
    • Set E49-292 / FE292: Detailset Brewster Buffalo Model 339 (Tamiya)
    • Set E49-279 / FE279: Detailset Brewster Buffalo (Tamiya)
    • Set E48-033: Detailset Brewster F2A Buffalo
  • Falcon
    • Set VAX12: Canopies US Navy WW2 (F2A Buffalo, F8F Bearcat, F4U, Duck, T6).
  • Pavla
    • Set V4806: F2A-2 Buffalo Canopy.
    • Set 48007: F2A-2 Buffalo upgrade set (Tamiya).
  • Scale Aircraft Conversions
    • Set 48192: Brewster F2A Buffalo Landing Gear (Tamiya).
    • Set 48203:F2A Landing Gear (Tamiya).
  • Squadron Signal
    • Set 09132: Canopies Brewster Buffalo.
  • True Details
    • Set 48512: Brewster Buffalo MK1/B339 cockpit detail set (Tamiya)
    • Set 48073: Brewster F2A Buffalo Wheel Set
  • Red Roo
    • Set M48114: Brewster F2A-3/Model339 Buffalo (ook KNIL)
    • Set M48117: Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo MK1 Conversion (ook KNIL)
  • Vector Resin
    • Set 48005: Wright R1820G/Shvetsov M62, M63 .


  • AMD
    • Set 48-619: Buffalo`s over South East Asia (RAAF, RAF, KNIL)
  • Dutch Profile
    • Set DDS87248: Brewster B339 Buffalo (RNEIAF) (both 1/72nd and 1/48th scale).
  • FlevoDecal
    • Set FD48-012: Set for vijf Brewsters, Curtiss Hawk 75, Curtiss CW-21 en CW-22; Messerschidt Me-108, Ryan STM, Lockheed 12 en Lodestar, Bücker Bu-131 and Martin WHh-1 and WH-2
  • Tally Ho
    • Set 4104: Brewster F2A Buffalo (KNIL)


All aircraft were sprayed in the so called "jong blad" (dark green) and "oud blad" (olive drab) camouflage pattern on upper surfaces and aluminium sprayed undersides.

During the armistice several Buffaloes were received from RAF, these aircraft had the standard RAF camouflage applied.

SchemeColour nameFS numberHumbrolXtraColorVallejo ModelColorVallejo ModelAir
Standard #1Upper surfaces Dark Green ~4092 149 X114 70.895 ? 71.014
Olive drab   66 X112/X113 70.889 71.034
Undersides Aluminium ~7178 191 / 56 X126 70.864 71.062

For an extended conversion table with very many colour and paint systems check (doen not work with Firefox)

Brewster B339 Buffalo 1 SMALL
Delivery scheme NEIAF Brewster B.339C/D.
Brewster B339 Buffalo 2 SMALL
Scheme NEIAF Brewster B.339C/D: Aircraft of blue patrol of  2 VlG V; with marking of 2 Vl G V on the fuselage.
Brewster B339 Buffalo 3 SMALL
Scheme NEIAF Brewster B.339C/D: Aircraft of red patrol of2 VlG V; with marking of 2 Vl G V on the fuselage.
Brewster B339 Buffalo 3 SMALL
Scheme NEIAF Brewster B.339C/D:
Brewster B339 Buffalo 4 SMALL
Scheme NEIAF Brewster B.339C/D: Aircraft of patrol commander of yellow patrol of 1 Vl G V
Brewster B339 Buffalo 5SMALL
Scheme NEIAF Brewster B.339C/D.
Brewster B339 Buffalo 6 SMALL
Scheme Brewster B.339: ex RAF, hadned over to NEIAF



Militaire Luchtvaart in Nederlandsch-Indië in beeld, Deel 2 Hugo Hooftman Pag. 4 - 16 1981 Europese Bibliotheek, Zaltbommel
Modelbouw In Plastic jaargang 9, nummer 2: De Brewster Buffalo. Hans Berfelo & Erik-Jan Brans Pag. 33 - 41 1980 Uitgever I.P.M.S. Nederland
AVIA; 41e jaargang nummer 5: Luchtvloot van Plastic: De Buffalo.... een oude liefde Hans Loeber pag. 194 - 197 1982 Uitgevers Wyt Plaats: Rotterdam
40 Jaar luchtvaart in Indië Gerard Casius & Thijs Postma Pag. 62,67 1986 Uitgeverij De Alk Plaats: Alkmaar
De Luchtstrijd rond Borneo P.C.Boer   1987 Uitg. Van Holkema & Warendorf
Aircraft Number 81: F2A Buffalo in action Jim Maas pag. 16 - 36 1987 Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., Carrolton, Texas
De Luchtstrijd om Indië P.C.Boer e.a.   1990 Uitg. Van Holkema & Warendorf
Camouflage en Kentekens J.Greuter e.a.   1997 Bonneville – Bergen (NH)



Specials thanks to Stephen de Waardt for his additional information regarding Brewster B-3159.